विपर्यय मिथ्या जननं तड़ रूपा प्रतिस्थम
viparyaya mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham
viparyaya- unreal cognition, misconception; mithya- of the unreal, of the false, illusory; jnanam- knowing, knowledge; atad- not its own; rupa- form, nature, appearance; pratistham- based on, possessing, established, occupying
Incorrect knowledge or illusion is false knowledge formed by perceiving a thing as being other than what it really is.
An example of the shifting perception is Rubin Vase, a picture of a vase, but also a picture of two faces at the same time. These are all over the internet in different forms. During the inner journey of meditation many currents of self knowledge and perceptions are explored, allowing the yogi to examine these fluctuations. Trying to see where we have made mistakes in our own perceptions is one of the major purposes of mediation and Yoga, so that we may begin to see clearly ourselves and our world. Only by doing this is the yogi able to transcend the mind field, get past the four forms of ignorance (avidya), and experience our True Self.
Observe your thoughts throughout the day, not just in meditation. What incorrect perceptions do you draw? How do you view the world around you on a daily basis, and how do you know if you’re perceiving and translating the correct information? Many times I must catch myself in my thinking, whether its the angry person at reception, or the person cutting me off on the highway. Not everyone does things out of anger or hate, maybe there is an underlying reasoning they operate on. Monitor your perceptions, your judgments, and see how many are colored by wrongly established knowledge.